We need our learners to develop their ‘mental toughness'. By this we are not trying to develop superheroes who approach problems and learning as if they are invincible. Instead, our learners need to develop a healthy self-efficacy, where their self-esteem is built on learned accomplishments and can withstand failure.
Peter Clough’s model of the 4 Cs provides an effective framework for schools and teachers to support their learners. It consists of four attributes that help learners to develop mental toughness- challenge, control, commitment and confidence.
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